锘? 00:00:05,157 --> 00:00:10,157 Subtitles by explosiveskull 2 00:00:10,695 --> 00:00:14,575 The family is one of the most powerful forces in nature. 3 00:00:18,815 --> 00:00:21,295 Family life is full of wonder... 4 00:00:23,215 --> 00:00:24,295 Beauty... 5 00:00:25,775 --> 00:00:26,895 ...and drama. 6 00:00:33,775 --> 00:00:37,053 For the past four years, we've been following some 7 00:00:37,055 --> 00:00:41,415 of the most celebrated and endangered species on Earth. 8 00:00:54,095 --> 00:00:59,853 We followed their fortunes from here on the plains of Zimbabwe, 9 00:00:59,855 --> 00:01:01,855 to the jungles of India... 10 00:01:07,375 --> 00:01:09,295 From the edge of the Sahara... 11 00:01:10,775 --> 00:01:13,535 ...to the frozen wastes of Antarctica. 12 00:01:15,655 --> 00:01:19,653 We join each family at a crucial moment in their lives 13 00:01:19,655 --> 00:01:21,735 when they are battling against the odds. 14 00:01:25,015 --> 00:01:30,935 Fighting for survival against the elements... 15 00:01:35,055 --> 00:01:36,535 ...and against rivals. 16 00:01:41,655 --> 00:01:45,533 We've got closer, and filmed in greater length, 17 00:01:45,535 --> 00:01:49,535 and in more detail, than we've ever tried to do before. 18 00:01:53,655 --> 00:01:57,933 In our modern world, ensuring the survival of the next generation 19 00:01:57,935 --> 00:01:59,775 is becoming ever more difficult. 20 00:02:02,935 --> 00:02:06,293 For these families to win against the odds 21 00:02:06,295 --> 00:02:08,655 will be their greatest challenge. 22 00:02:09,935 --> 00:02:11,895 This is Dynasties. 23 00:02:32,175 --> 00:02:34,575 Senegal, West Africa. 24 00:02:36,935 --> 00:02:40,455 Home to a remarkable troupe of chimpanzees. 25 00:02:44,335 --> 00:02:48,573 It gets so hot and dry here, it's the very limit of where 26 00:02:48,575 --> 00:02:49,815 they can survive. 27 00:02:56,775 --> 00:03:01,335 This territory is ruled by one strong and determined leader... 28 00:03:05,775 --> 00:03:08,215 ...an alpha male known as David. 29 00:03:21,255 --> 00:03:25,293 His rule gets him the best of everything. 30 00:03:25,295 --> 00:03:26,895 (CHIMPANZEES SCREECH) 31 00:03:27,815 --> 00:03:29,655 But, he can trust no-one. 32 00:03:37,735 --> 00:03:42,095 He's surrounded by rivals prepared to kill him for his crown. 33 00:03:49,375 --> 00:03:56,815 This is a story of power, politics and the fight for survival. 34 00:04:25,095 --> 00:04:29,773 David's torn ears are testament to the many battles he's fought 35 00:04:29,775 --> 00:04:35,055 and won to protect his status and his family. 36 00:04:40,455 --> 00:04:44,255 He has ruled over his troupe for three years. 37 00:04:49,815 --> 00:04:54,415 Leaders here don't usually hold power for much longer than this. 38 00:04:57,775 --> 00:05:03,935 And now, as the dry season begins, David's rivals are gathering again. 39 00:05:13,655 --> 00:05:18,535 Successful alpha males normally have many allies to support them. 40 00:05:24,135 --> 00:05:26,175 But David is alone. 41 00:05:30,575 --> 00:05:32,535 He has never been more vulnerable. 42 00:05:44,335 --> 00:05:47,373 In the dry season, these huge mounds of earth 43 00:05:47,375 --> 00:05:50,815 are magnets for all 32 chimps in the group. 44 00:06:02,695 --> 00:06:08,375 The mounds are full of food, rich in fat and protein... 45 00:06:17,495 --> 00:06:18,535 ...termites. 46 00:06:35,015 --> 00:06:38,573 These chimps have learned to use grass stems 47 00:06:38,575 --> 00:06:41,335 as tools to fish out the insects. 48 00:06:47,255 --> 00:06:50,975 As leader, David gets his pick of the feeding spots. 49 00:06:56,775 --> 00:07:01,415 But he is wary, as he must feed alongside old enemies. 50 00:07:05,655 --> 00:07:08,775 He knows two particularly ambitious rivals. 51 00:07:11,655 --> 00:07:16,735 David's toes begin to twitch, a nervous tic he can't conceal. 52 00:07:25,855 --> 00:07:30,895 This is Jumkin, who has long-sought the top spot. 53 00:07:39,015 --> 00:07:41,415 And this, Luthor... 54 00:07:45,895 --> 00:07:51,815 ...a tempestuous younger male with an aggressive streak. 55 00:08:04,375 --> 00:08:08,173 The troupe is together for the first time in months and jostling 56 00:08:08,175 --> 00:08:11,775 for good feeding spots can easily lead to clashes. 57 00:08:20,655 --> 00:08:26,493 It's vital that David keeps order, and defuses the situation. 58 00:08:26,495 --> 00:08:27,733 All eyes are on him. 59 00:08:27,735 --> 00:08:28,895 (THEY CALL TO EACH OTHER) 60 00:08:37,895 --> 00:08:40,895 His display shows he is in control. 61 00:08:44,255 --> 00:08:49,295 But in chimp society, strength alone is not enough. 62 00:08:51,615 --> 00:08:54,695 David must be political to hold on to power. 63 00:08:59,615 --> 00:09:01,535 He needs to make an ally. 64 00:09:06,975 --> 00:09:09,493 This is KL. 65 00:09:09,495 --> 00:09:13,293 He's strong but grey-bearded and past the age where he would 66 00:09:13,295 --> 00:09:15,615 challenge for the role of alpha. 67 00:09:20,135 --> 00:09:21,855 David makes an approach. 68 00:09:34,415 --> 00:09:37,495 Grooming builds bonds of friendship... 69 00:09:39,255 --> 00:09:42,495 ...buying support and giving benefits in return. 70 00:09:52,375 --> 00:09:55,455 You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours. 71 00:10:04,095 --> 00:10:07,975 Only time will tell if this new alliance will pay off. 72 00:10:26,175 --> 00:10:27,375 Temperatures soar. 73 00:10:46,895 --> 00:10:49,015 It's already 40 degrees. 74 00:11:04,615 --> 00:11:09,375 The arid land might seem one giant sandpit for the infants... 75 00:11:12,015 --> 00:11:18,295 ...but for the adults, existing tensions are starting to surface. 76 00:11:33,815 --> 00:11:36,015 And David has his eye on Jumkin. 77 00:11:50,615 --> 00:11:53,015 Jumkin attacks an elderly female. 78 00:11:58,095 --> 00:12:01,815 It is a display of his aspirations for power. 79 00:12:18,215 --> 00:12:20,135 David can't tolerate this... 80 00:12:22,815 --> 00:12:24,455 ...but KL steps in... 81 00:12:33,535 --> 00:12:37,335 ...and gives Jumkin a sharp lesson. 82 00:12:41,495 --> 00:12:43,735 (THEY SCREECH) 83 00:12:56,375 --> 00:12:59,375 It's swiftly followed by one from David himself. 84 00:13:04,895 --> 00:13:07,095 With a final, huge lunge at his rival... 85 00:13:11,255 --> 00:13:12,575 ...Jumkin comes crashing down. 86 00:13:23,495 --> 00:13:28,295 Together, David and KL are now a force to be reckoned with. 87 00:14:41,775 --> 00:14:46,175 Fires destroy three quarters of the group's territory. 88 00:14:53,575 --> 00:14:56,695 Much of their food and shelter has gone. 89 00:15:06,975 --> 00:15:12,253 And with temperatures continuing to rise, 90 00:15:12,255 --> 00:15:15,775 water is becoming perilously scarce. 91 00:15:24,615 --> 00:15:27,415 The group must stick together to survive. 92 00:15:36,095 --> 00:15:40,253 Gathering in a dried out riverbed, they use knowledge passed 93 00:15:40,255 --> 00:15:42,775 down from generation to generation. 94 00:15:47,455 --> 00:15:51,215 A hidden water source under the parched earth. 95 00:16:11,935 --> 00:16:16,095 For David, there is more than just drought to worry about. 96 00:16:23,615 --> 00:16:26,015 He can't avoid his rivals. 97 00:16:31,575 --> 00:16:35,295 KL is proving to be a loyal ally to David. 98 00:16:38,095 --> 00:16:40,815 And David is going to need him more than ever. 99 00:16:58,815 --> 00:17:02,773 By rare coincidence, three of the seven females 100 00:17:02,775 --> 00:17:06,215 have become sexually receptive at the same time. 101 00:17:08,375 --> 00:17:11,735 Their swellings attract the attention of all the males. 102 00:17:15,255 --> 00:17:19,655 The females will try to mate with as many males as possible. 103 00:17:51,055 --> 00:17:55,855 David must control them all to ensure he is the one who mates. 104 00:18:00,575 --> 00:18:04,895 But some of the troupe, like Luthor, have other ideas. 105 00:18:12,055 --> 00:18:14,375 (THEY SCREECH) 106 00:18:18,575 --> 00:18:22,255 All the other males see this could be their chance. 107 00:18:30,255 --> 00:18:33,573 There's never been a more important moment for David 108 00:18:33,575 --> 00:18:35,015 to assert his power. 109 00:18:39,655 --> 00:18:41,375 He makes the first move. 110 00:18:54,895 --> 00:19:00,253 His rivals respond with their own display of strength 111 00:19:00,255 --> 00:19:02,415 and start to close ranks. 112 00:19:03,695 --> 00:19:07,455 David and KL seemed to be outnumbered. 113 00:19:08,855 --> 00:19:11,733 Everything turns to chaos. 114 00:19:11,735 --> 00:19:15,255 (SCREECHING) 115 00:20:11,055 --> 00:20:15,015 At some point during the night, the younger males turned on David. 116 00:21:25,895 --> 00:21:32,053 The females and their infants come to his side to support him 117 00:21:32,055 --> 00:21:33,175 and tend his wounds. 118 00:22:49,375 --> 00:22:50,495 They can't stay here. 119 00:22:53,095 --> 00:22:55,255 They and their young need water. 120 00:23:58,135 --> 00:24:01,415 The whole group move on to the nearest water hole. 121 00:24:14,095 --> 00:24:16,695 Even KL has to leave David behind. 122 00:25:04,175 --> 00:25:07,935 It's a six mile trek to the next source of water. 123 00:25:28,615 --> 00:25:31,735 David is left for dead. 124 00:25:40,975 --> 00:25:45,093 There is now a power vacuum at the top 125 00:25:45,095 --> 00:25:47,935 and Luthor sees an opportunity. 126 00:26:24,655 --> 00:26:29,375 Creating fear within the group is one way to become leader. 127 00:26:38,335 --> 00:26:41,335 (THEY SCREECH) 128 00:26:43,975 --> 00:26:46,295 (AGGRESSIVE SCREECHING) 129 00:27:24,495 --> 00:27:27,253 He tries to intimidate the group, but a bid for leadership 130 00:27:27,255 --> 00:27:29,455 is never instant. 131 00:27:31,735 --> 00:27:34,175 He'll have to keep this up for many days. 132 00:28:22,535 --> 00:28:28,373 Friendless and wounded, David somehow musters the energy 133 00:28:28,375 --> 00:28:29,735 to search for food. 134 00:28:38,775 --> 00:28:42,815 He has to rejoined the group before he's exiled for good. 135 00:28:48,215 --> 00:28:51,055 But first, he must regain strength. 136 00:28:53,775 --> 00:28:55,095 Time is running out. 137 00:30:07,735 --> 00:30:11,253 Remarkably, one week after the attack, 138 00:30:11,255 --> 00:30:14,895 David makes the long journey to find the group. 139 00:30:53,655 --> 00:30:57,615 Luthor, meanwhile, has ramped up his bid for leadership. 140 00:31:13,935 --> 00:31:15,895 David has almost made it... 141 00:31:20,095 --> 00:31:22,655 ...but he's in no fit state to fight. 142 00:31:28,335 --> 00:31:30,255 Luthor spots David's approach... 143 00:31:34,935 --> 00:31:36,775 ...and readies himself for battle. 144 00:31:48,855 --> 00:31:54,333 David's only chance against Luthor is to make himself look 145 00:31:54,335 --> 00:31:55,935 as strong as possible. 146 00:32:08,015 --> 00:32:10,095 (SCREECHING) 147 00:32:20,295 --> 00:32:21,895 (THEY CONTINUE TO SCREECH) 148 00:32:29,735 --> 00:32:33,335 Intimidated, Luthor has to run. 149 00:32:39,335 --> 00:32:44,055 Without a blow being struck, David is back! 150 00:33:18,775 --> 00:33:23,535 David is finally reunited with his comrade, KL. 151 00:33:54,815 --> 00:33:58,855 Grooming each other reaffirms their bonds of friendship. 152 00:34:49,695 --> 00:34:53,615 For David, returning is only half the battle. 153 00:34:55,295 --> 00:34:59,053 Exhausted and fragile, he's only hanging on to his 154 00:34:59,055 --> 00:35:00,735 leadership by a thread. 155 00:35:16,415 --> 00:35:18,655 Luthor appears defeated. 156 00:35:23,455 --> 00:35:28,815 With a submissive gesture, he seeks forgiveness from David. 157 00:36:00,015 --> 00:36:02,895 But David is unwilling to accept. 158 00:36:23,375 --> 00:36:27,455 Over the following weeks, Luthor finds himself sidelined. 159 00:36:41,055 --> 00:36:44,175 The other males now gather around David. 160 00:37:02,015 --> 00:37:05,215 And Luthor has no choice but to step in line. 161 00:37:10,135 --> 00:37:14,093 David has his group around him once more, 162 00:37:14,095 --> 00:37:17,775 but he doesn't show them how weakened he really is. 163 00:37:21,335 --> 00:37:25,413 His injuries haven't healed and the males could turn on him 164 00:37:25,415 --> 00:37:26,975 again at any moment. 165 00:37:38,255 --> 00:37:41,015 For now, he seems to be fooling them all. 166 00:37:52,295 --> 00:37:56,053 He's buying himself time to regain his strength 167 00:37:56,055 --> 00:38:00,413 before another female comes into season 168 00:38:00,415 --> 00:38:02,655 when he will face competition once again. 169 00:38:05,095 --> 00:38:07,575 (THUNDER ROARS) 170 00:38:18,655 --> 00:38:22,135 At last, rain-filled clouds bring an end to the drought. 171 00:40:00,735 --> 00:40:04,495 David's territory is transformed. 172 00:40:14,095 --> 00:40:18,895 There is water everywhere and a glut of food. 173 00:40:25,935 --> 00:40:28,175 The pressure on the group is lifted. 174 00:40:35,775 --> 00:40:39,815 Everyone can relax a little after months of hardship. 175 00:40:46,095 --> 00:40:49,055 David's strength appears to be returning. 176 00:40:51,575 --> 00:40:55,015 His displays in front of the group become ever more assertive. 177 00:41:13,055 --> 00:41:17,255 But in truth, he remains weaker than he lets on to the others. 178 00:41:30,455 --> 00:41:34,935 Whenever possible, he disappears to gather extra food. 179 00:41:46,855 --> 00:41:50,453 He gorges on everything he can find... 180 00:41:50,455 --> 00:41:51,495 ...fruit... 181 00:41:53,855 --> 00:41:54,895 ...leaves... 182 00:41:59,695 --> 00:42:01,015 ...even ants. 183 00:42:18,975 --> 00:42:21,535 He's almost back to full health. 184 00:42:27,575 --> 00:42:30,533 But that alone might still not be enough for him 185 00:42:30,535 --> 00:42:31,895 to hold on to power. 186 00:42:33,295 --> 00:42:36,495 Soon, another female will be ready to mate. 187 00:42:51,455 --> 00:42:55,295 Last time, one ally was not enough for David. 188 00:42:58,335 --> 00:43:00,415 He tries a new strategy. 189 00:43:12,375 --> 00:43:15,255 He starts grooming other males. 190 00:43:24,415 --> 00:43:25,455 First one... 191 00:43:32,695 --> 00:43:33,775 ...then another. 192 00:43:50,015 --> 00:43:53,853 Slowly, over weeks, he surrounds himself 193 00:43:53,855 --> 00:43:55,335 with a band of allies. 194 00:44:02,935 --> 00:44:05,295 An army of elders... 195 00:44:06,655 --> 00:44:10,695 ...experienced fighters, but too old to steal his crown. 196 00:44:16,655 --> 00:44:19,733 Now, he must wait and see if he's done enough 197 00:44:19,735 --> 00:44:23,455 to prevent a recurrence of dissent in the ranks. 198 00:44:33,215 --> 00:44:36,215 Sure enough, a female has come into season. 199 00:44:41,975 --> 00:44:44,495 Her swelling doesn't go unnoticed. 200 00:45:00,855 --> 00:45:03,655 Last time, David was vulnerable. 201 00:45:24,575 --> 00:45:26,935 This time, he has allies... 202 00:45:30,775 --> 00:45:33,453 (SCREECHING) 203 00:45:33,455 --> 00:45:36,175 ...prepared to charge ahead and clear his path. 204 00:45:48,135 --> 00:45:52,095 Displaying his strength reminds rivals to stay away. 205 00:46:14,975 --> 00:46:18,733 If David has fully secured his position as Alpha, 206 00:46:18,735 --> 00:46:21,055 he will be the one who mates with the female. 207 00:46:31,535 --> 00:46:32,975 She catches his eye. 208 00:46:47,095 --> 00:46:52,013 With a number of allies positioned throughout the group, 209 00:46:52,015 --> 00:46:54,175 none of his rivals dare to challenge him. 210 00:46:57,255 --> 00:47:00,375 This is David's time to mate. 211 00:48:00,975 --> 00:48:02,415 Nine months later... 212 00:48:17,135 --> 00:48:19,135 ...a new baby boy! 213 00:48:22,375 --> 00:48:25,655 David's reward for maintaining power. 214 00:48:34,935 --> 00:48:39,375 His rule and the future of his dynasty is secure. 215 00:48:49,375 --> 00:48:52,613 By being Alpha, David will have sired 216 00:48:52,615 --> 00:48:56,495 twice as many offspring as any other member of the group. 217 00:49:00,575 --> 00:49:05,093 And one day, one of his sons might just have what it takes 218 00:49:05,095 --> 00:49:06,895 to be a future leader. 219 00:49:17,895 --> 00:49:22,213 David has become the most powerful, longest reigning alpha, 220 00:49:22,215 --> 00:49:24,575 this group has ever seen. 221 00:49:27,855 --> 00:49:34,533 But there will always be another dry season, and there will always be 222 00:49:34,535 --> 00:49:37,895 rivals waiting for their chance. 223 00:49:58,455 --> 00:50:02,213 The Dynasties crew spent two years capturing the story 224 00:50:02,215 --> 00:50:03,935 of these chimpanzees. 225 00:50:10,695 --> 00:50:13,135 This is how every day begins. 226 00:50:17,295 --> 00:50:21,053 Walking over 1,500 miles... 227 00:50:21,055 --> 00:50:23,295 You know it's steep when the chimps are being careful. 228 00:50:27,455 --> 00:50:34,373 ...carrying around 80 kilos each day in some of the hottest 229 00:50:34,375 --> 00:50:37,295 temperatures on Earth. 230 00:50:40,775 --> 00:50:43,375 It's got to be 46, 47 degrees right now. 231 00:50:45,935 --> 00:50:50,453 I think it's fair to say filming a blazing fire, 232 00:50:50,455 --> 00:50:54,613 when it's 40 degrees wasn't probably my best idea. 233 00:50:54,615 --> 00:50:56,373 (BEES BUZZING) 234 00:50:56,375 --> 00:50:59,733 It's crazy, it's the second time we've had to run away 235 00:50:59,735 --> 00:51:02,053 from bees this morning. 236 00:51:02,055 --> 00:51:05,053 I got stung, and as you might be able to tell, 237 00:51:05,055 --> 00:51:07,535 it's swollen up a little bit. 238 00:51:09,655 --> 00:51:11,135 Oh, my God. 239 00:51:15,975 --> 00:51:17,573 How stuck is it? 240 00:51:17,575 --> 00:51:18,895 It's pretty stuck. 241 00:51:20,655 --> 00:51:23,533 But the hardest challenge of all is understanding 242 00:51:23,535 --> 00:51:27,253 the complexities of the lives of these chimps. 243 00:51:27,255 --> 00:51:30,613 This is only possible thanks to scientist Jill Pruetz 244 00:51:30,615 --> 00:51:36,013 and her team, who have been studying this troupe for nearly 20 years. 245 00:51:36,015 --> 00:51:40,133 One of the reasons I think I like to have people see the chimps 246 00:51:40,135 --> 00:51:42,973 is, it is almost like a soap opera. 247 00:51:42,975 --> 00:51:47,653 It really is this social group that is not that different 248 00:51:47,655 --> 00:51:50,133 from humans. So you have relationships change 249 00:51:50,135 --> 00:51:52,415 and you have different personalities. 250 00:51:55,895 --> 00:51:59,773 Jill's insights helped the team get to know all the different characters 251 00:51:59,775 --> 00:52:02,495 she has given names to over the years. 252 00:52:03,775 --> 00:52:07,373 But right from the start, one chimp named David, 253 00:52:07,375 --> 00:52:10,213 grabs everyone's attention. 254 00:52:10,215 --> 00:52:15,773 We've only been here a few days but immediately David stood out. 255 00:52:15,775 --> 00:52:17,575 He's really recognisable. 256 00:52:18,855 --> 00:52:21,735 He's a bit of a game player, but also he's often on his own. 257 00:52:24,775 --> 00:52:27,773 He's very, very charismatic. 258 00:52:27,775 --> 00:52:30,053 He's got a real kind of swagger to him. 259 00:52:30,055 --> 00:52:32,733 He reminds me of Marlon Brando, actually, he's got this real kind 260 00:52:32,735 --> 00:52:33,855 of presence to him. 261 00:52:36,855 --> 00:52:38,373 David is one of my favourite chimps. 262 00:52:38,375 --> 00:52:40,973 I maybe a little biased, I think he's quite clever. 263 00:52:40,975 --> 00:52:44,653 I think of him as a very strong, you know, strong willed chimp, 264 00:52:44,655 --> 00:52:49,573 a very dominant chimp and he was very ambitious 265 00:52:49,575 --> 00:52:53,493 when he first became a young adult, and he rose up the hierarchy 266 00:52:53,495 --> 00:52:55,493 really quickly for his age. 267 00:52:55,495 --> 00:53:00,053 So he became alpha, actually, when he was a teenager. 268 00:53:00,055 --> 00:53:06,295 He's constantly having to fend off challenges from other younger males. 269 00:53:08,295 --> 00:53:12,053 And it just goes to show it's tough being alpha. 270 00:53:12,055 --> 00:53:14,095 It's tough being at the top. 271 00:53:17,375 --> 00:53:20,573 After following David for so many months, 272 00:53:20,575 --> 00:53:23,015 he seems almost like family to the crew. 273 00:53:25,215 --> 00:53:28,055 So when he's violently attacked its a real shock. 274 00:53:29,735 --> 00:53:32,893 Coming out this morning, it's sort of heartbreaking to see 275 00:53:32,895 --> 00:53:37,853 this chimp that was so powerful... 276 00:53:37,855 --> 00:53:40,975 ...just looking so weak. 277 00:53:43,095 --> 00:53:46,893 Oh, he doesn't look good, he's covered in flies. 278 00:53:46,895 --> 00:53:49,495 And he's looking, looking really bad, actually. 279 00:53:51,415 --> 00:53:54,893 It's like a frail old man, suddenly. 280 00:53:54,895 --> 00:53:59,015 Like he's ready to die, almost. 281 00:54:08,335 --> 00:54:11,375 The following day their concerns deepen. 282 00:54:13,215 --> 00:54:17,733 We arrived at 5am and leave not been able to find any of the chimps. 283 00:54:17,735 --> 00:54:19,733 So we've no idea what condition David's in, 284 00:54:19,735 --> 00:54:21,653 and he's in a bad way already. 285 00:54:21,655 --> 00:54:23,135 We wish him luck. 286 00:54:31,975 --> 00:54:35,135 I'm sort of worried about him, and his state. 287 00:54:36,855 --> 00:54:38,455 I just really hope he's OK. 288 00:54:43,535 --> 00:54:45,055 So we're still looking. 289 00:54:48,015 --> 00:54:50,333 They check the remote camera at the water hole, 290 00:54:50,335 --> 00:54:52,855 where they hope David might have gone to drink. 291 00:54:57,215 --> 00:54:58,895 I've just gone from the beginning... 292 00:55:02,175 --> 00:55:06,615 ...and it looks like David hasn't been to drink here. 293 00:55:16,295 --> 00:55:18,613 Michelle has just found some tracks. 294 00:55:18,615 --> 00:55:21,253 How he finds these things I don't know, but there's a chance 295 00:55:21,255 --> 00:55:24,135 we might catch up with him. Good find, let's go. 296 00:55:28,775 --> 00:55:32,333 Luckily, the tracks do indeed lead to David. 297 00:55:32,335 --> 00:55:37,973 We've been really worried with the extent of his injuries, 298 00:55:37,975 --> 00:55:42,335 we didn't know if he was alive, or if he was ever coming back. 299 00:55:46,255 --> 00:55:50,935 He came right back in and maintained that alpha status. 300 00:55:52,975 --> 00:55:57,173 David has been alpha for almost double what we've seen 301 00:55:57,175 --> 00:55:58,693 with other alphas. 302 00:55:58,695 --> 00:56:01,735 He's been challenged a few times, but he's been able to hold on. 303 00:56:04,695 --> 00:56:09,813 We saw him, not only nearly lose his position in the hierarchy, 304 00:56:09,815 --> 00:56:11,973 but we saw him nearly lose his life. 305 00:56:11,975 --> 00:56:15,533 The injuries he sustained in the last coup, 306 00:56:15,535 --> 00:56:17,295 would have been enough to kill me. 307 00:56:20,975 --> 00:56:23,733 David has been able to overcome the many challenges 308 00:56:23,735 --> 00:56:25,853 that have come from within, 309 00:56:25,855 --> 00:56:30,133 but there's a greater threat that he and his group face. 310 00:56:30,135 --> 00:56:33,093 In Senegal right now, I'd say the main threat to chimpanzees 311 00:56:33,095 --> 00:56:37,493 is the gold rush, which just obliterates huge areas. 312 00:56:37,495 --> 00:56:41,133 Less than a decade ago, the prices of gold rose, 313 00:56:41,135 --> 00:56:45,573 and people have intensified gold mining, so that really has increased 314 00:56:45,575 --> 00:56:47,455 the number of people here. 315 00:56:48,855 --> 00:56:52,335 Chimps here have lived alongside people for thousands of years. 316 00:56:54,095 --> 00:56:58,573 David's group has so far adapted to life alongside humans 317 00:56:58,575 --> 00:57:00,055 in a remarkable way. 318 00:57:01,655 --> 00:57:04,693 But, with such demand for these minerals, 319 00:57:04,695 --> 00:57:09,173 and ever more people searching for gold in this region, 320 00:57:09,175 --> 00:57:12,775 habitat destruction and poaching is inevitable. 321 00:57:15,215 --> 00:57:17,773 You know, there's not that many chimpanzees left. 322 00:57:17,775 --> 00:57:20,973 The West African chimp here in Senegal, 323 00:57:20,975 --> 00:57:24,133 and in west Africa in general, has been upgraded 324 00:57:24,135 --> 00:57:28,853 to critically endangered because so many have been lost. 325 00:57:28,855 --> 00:57:31,973 In Senegal, the number of chimpanzees is now 326 00:57:31,975 --> 00:57:33,575 just in the hundreds. 327 00:57:36,775 --> 00:57:43,213 In the last 25 years, 80% of Western chimpanzees 328 00:57:43,215 --> 00:57:45,093 have disappeared. 329 00:57:45,095 --> 00:57:47,533 And in the future, studies like Jill's 330 00:57:47,535 --> 00:57:51,253 will become increasingly important to help conservationists 331 00:57:51,255 --> 00:57:55,933 and local governments protect the surviving chimpanzees, 332 00:57:55,935 --> 00:57:59,655 not only in Senegal, but across the whole of Africa. 333 00:58:06,015 --> 00:58:07,373 Next time... 334 00:58:07,375 --> 00:58:09,455 A dynasty of thousands. 335 00:58:12,175 --> 00:58:17,213 A great march into the frozen wastes of Antarctica, 336 00:58:17,215 --> 00:58:20,975 to face the coldest and cruellest winter on earth. 337 00:58:30,249 --> 00:58:35,249 Subtitles by explosiveskull
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